Église catholique chaldéenne

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<languagages/> L'Église catholique chaldéenne, Église chaldéenne catholique ou Église chaldéenne de l'Orient est une des Églises catholiques orientales. Le chef de l'Église porte le titre de Catholicos-Patriarche de Babylone des Chaldéens, avec résidence à Bagdad en Irak. Le titulaire actuel est le patriarche [[Louis Raphaël Ier Sako|Louis Raphaël Template:Ier Sako]], élu le 31 janvier 2013 [1].

Histoire

Les premiers contacts entre l'Église de l'Orient et l'Église de Rome se produisirent au XIIIème siècle au cours des ambassades dominicaine et franciscaine vers les Mongols initiées par Innocent IV[2]. Ils se poursuivirent lors des tentatives de rapprochement diplomatique entre les "Francs" et les Mongols installés au Moyen-Orient. Ainsi, en 1289, le moine "nestorien" Rabban Bar Sauma, rapporta de sa mission en Occident une lettre du pape Nicolas IV au catholicos Yahballaha III (1281-1317). En 1290, Yahballaha reçoit le dominicain Ricoldo da Monte Croce ; il écrit en 1302 à Boniface VIII.

En 1340, les Chaldéens résidant à Chypre entrèrent en communion avec Rome[3]. L'Union fut réitérée au Concile de Florence, par le décret Benedictus du 7 août 1445.

Au XVIème siècle, des évêques indignés par la transmission héréditaire du patriarcat d'oncle à neveu adoptée en 1450, refusèrent, en 1552, l'autorité du Patriarche Simon VII Ishoyahb et élirent, malgré lui, l'abbé Yohannan Soulaqa comme patriarche. Il fut envoyé à Rome pour demander la consécration épiscopale et la communion avec le Saint-Siège. Le Pape Jules III l'ordonna évêque et le proclama Patriarche des chaldéens sous le nom de Simon VIII Soulaqa.

Le retour de Simon VIII en Orient provoqua de vives querelles ; lui-mêmes fut exécuté en 1555 et sa communauté fut en grande partie réintégrée à l'Église assyrienne ; il s'ensuivit une période troublée où catholiques et nestoriens se combattirent avec acharnement en changeant de temps à autres de parti.

Ce n'est qu'en 1830 que la situation se stabilisa, avec la confirmation par Pie VIII de Jean Hormizdas comme Patriarche de Babylone des chaldéens, sous le nom de Youhanan VIII Hormez, avec son siège à Mossoul. Les catholiques devinrent largement majoritaires parmi les assyriens, mais souffrirent lourdement des massacres de 1918, perdant 70 000 fidèles ; il en résulta un mouvement des chaldéens vers le sud, et le siège patriarcal fut finalement transféré à Bagdad en 1950.

En 1994, Jean-Paul II signa un accord christologique avec le Patriarche assyrien Mar Dinkha IV Khanania, mettant fin à la controverse nestorienne, ce qui améliora spectaculairement les relations entre les chaldéens catholiques et l'Église assyrienne, liens resserrées encore par les événements actuels et les violences islamistes qui pèsent sur l'ensemble de la chrétienté irakienne.

Liturgie

L'Église chaldéenne utilise la langue liturgique syriaque dérivée de l'araméen.

Organisation

Organisation territoriale

Irak

Cathédrale Saint Joseph d'Erbil
  • Métropole de Bagdad
  • Métropole de Kirkouk
  • Archéparchie d'Erbil
  • Archéparchie de Bassorah
  • Archéparchie de Mossoul
  • Éparchie d'Alqosh
  • Éparchie d'Amadiyah
  • Éparchie d'Aqra
  • Éparchie de Sulaimaniya
  • Éparchie de Zakho

Iran

  • Métropole de Téhéran
  • Métropole d'Ourmia
  • Archéparchie de Ahwaz
  • Éparchie de Salmas

Reste du Moyen-Orient

Reste du monde

Les Instituts de vie consacrée et apostolique

Un ordre religieux masculin et deux congrégations religieuses féminines :

  • L'ordre Antonin Chaldéen de saint Hormizda.
  • La congrégation des Filles chaldéennes de Marie.
  • La congrégation du Sacré-Cœur.

Relations avec les autres Églises

L'Église est membre du Conseil des Églises du Moyen-Orient et reconnue par le Vatican.

Relations avec les autres Églises de tradition syriaque

Template:Loupe Depuis 1994, l'Église catholique chaldéenne participe à une série de discussions œcuméniques avec les autres Églises de tradition syriaque, à l'initiative de la Fondation Pro Oriente, organisme dépendant du diocèse catholique de Vienne en Autriche. Ces discussions rassemblent des représentants d'Églises catholiques et séparées, de tradition syriaque occidentale (Église syriaque orthodoxe, Église catholique syriaque, Église malankare orthodoxe, Église catholique syro-malankare, Église maronite) et de tradition syriaque orientale (Église apostolique assyrienne de l'Orient, Ancienne Église de l'Orient, Église catholique chaldéenne, Église catholique syro-malabare).

Relations avec l'Église apostolique assyrienne de l'Orient.

Par la « Déclaration christologique commune » de 1994, signée par le pape Jean-Paul II et le patriarche Mar Dinkha IV, le principal problème dogmatique existant entre l'Église catholique et l'Église assyrienne d'Orient a été résolu. Par conséquent, le rapprochement œcuménique entre l'Église chaldéenne et l'Église assyrienne d'Orient est parvenu à une nouvelle phase de développement.

Le 29 novembre 1996, le patriarche Mar Raphaël Bidawid et le patriarche Mar Dinkha IV signent une liste de propositions communes dans le but de parvenir au rétablissement de la pleine unité ecclésiale entre les deux héritières historiques de l'antique Église de l'Orient.

Le 15 août 1997, les synodes des deux Églises approuvent ce programme et le confirment par un Décret synodal conjoint. Les deux patriarches approuvent, avec l'appui de leurs synodes respectifs, une nouvelle série d'initiatives visant à promouvoir le rétablissement progressif de leur unité ecclésiale.

Le 20 juillet 2001, le Conseil pontifical pour la promotion de l'unité des chrétiens publie des orientations pour l'admission à l'Eucharistie entre l'Église chaldéenne et l'Église assyrienne d'Orient en reconnaissant la validité de l'Eucharistie célébrée avec l'anaphore de Addai et Mari.

Voir aussi

Liens et références

  1. Mgr Louis Sako nouveau patriarche des Chaldéens.
  2. cf. articles André de Longjumeau, Guillaume de Rubrouck
  3. DOC p. 163
Chaldean Catholic Church
ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ
Ecclesia Chaldaeorum Catholica
Patriarchum Babylonensis Chaldenorum.jpg
Emblem of the Chaldean Patriarchate
Founder Traces ultimate origins to Thomas the Apostle, Addai and Mari; emerged from the Church of the East in the 3rd Century
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches
Primate Louis Raphaël I Sako
Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq
Territory Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Austria, Belgium, France, Greece, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Georgia (country), Sweden, United Kingdom
Language Chaldean,[1] Aramaic
Members 2,500,000[2][3]
Website http://www.saint-adday.com/

The Chaldean Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), is an Eastern Syriac particular church of the Catholic Church, under the Holy See of the Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. The Chaldean Catholic Church presently comprises an estimated 2,500,000 people who are ethnic Chaldeans

Chaldean Church History

The history of the Chaldean Church is the history of the Church of the East founded between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD in Mesopotamia Chaldea (Chaldeans ruled Mesopotamia) — represented today by at least eleven different churches, (then ruled by the successive Parthian and Sassanid Empires, where it was known by derivative names for Chaldea) — between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. The region of Chaldea was also the birthplace of the Syriac language and Syriac script, both of which remain important within all strands of Syriac Christianity.

It was originally a part of The Church of the East before the 1553 consecration of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa who entered communion with the Roman Catholic Church, when it was renamed the Church of Mosul. Subsequent to this, it was again renamed by Rome in 1683 as the Chaldean Catholic Church in recognition of the native Chaldean people of Mesopotamia Iraq where Father Ibrahim was raised and lived at UR of Chaldeans.

After the extensive massacres of Chaldean and other Christians by Tamerlane around 1400 AD had devastated many Chaldean bishoprics and finally destroyed the 4000 year old city of Nineveh, the Church of the East — which had extended as far as China, Central Asia, Mongolia and India — was largely reduced to Mesopotamia, its place of origin. It was followed by its core founders of Eastern Aramaic speaking ethnic Chaldeans who lived largely in Mesopotamia between Amid (Diyarbakır), Mardin, Harran and Hakkari in the north to Mosul, Irbil and Kirkuk in the south, and from Salmas and Urmia in the east to Al-Hassakeh, Tur Abdin and Edessa in the west; an area approximately encompassing ancient Chaldea.

1552: Yohannan Sulaqa

Dissent over the hereditary succession grew until 1552, when a group of Chaldean bishops, from the northern regions of Amid and Salmas, elected a priest, Mar Yohannan Sulaqa, as a rival patriarch. To look for a bishop of metropolitan rank to consecrate him patriarch, Sulaqa traveled to the pope in Rome and entered into communion with the Catholic Church, after first being refused by the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 1553 he was consecrated bishop and elevated to the rank of patriarch taking the name of Mar Shimun VIII. He was granted the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans", and his church was named The Church of Mosul.

Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa returned to northern Mesopotamia in the same year and fixed his seat in Amid. Before being put to death by the radical Nestorians of the Church of the East patriarch of Alqosh,[4]:57 he ordained five metropolitan Chaldean bishops thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy: the patriarchal line known as the Shimun line. The area of influence of this patriarchate soon moved from Amid east, fixing the See, after many places, in the Chaldean village of Qochanis.

The connections with Rome loosened up under Sulaqa's successors: The last patriarch to be formally recognized by the Pope died in 1600, the hereditary of the office was reintroduced and, in 1692, the communion with Rome was formally broken, with this part of the church once more rejoining the Church of the East.

Chaldean Bishops worldwide representing the Chaldean Church led by Chaldean Cardinal Emmanuel Delly III visit the Holy Pope, The Vatican, Italy, 2013

1672: The Josephite line of Amid

In 1672, 'Chaldean' Patriarchate Chaldean Mar Joseph I, Archbishop of Amid, entered in communion with Rome. In 1681 the Holy See granted him the title of "Patriarch of the Chaldeans deprived of its patriarch."

The 'Chaldean Catholic' arose due to a Catholic Latin in recognition of the native Chaldean people of Mesopotamia and of the Hebrew Ur Kasdim (according to long held Jewish tradition, the birthplace of Abraham in northern Mesopotamia) as meaning Ur of the Chaldees.[5]

The 'Chaldean Catholic' is historically, usually and properly taken purely as a doctrinal and theological term for Chaldean People believers of Catholicism.[6][7][7] The modern Chaldean Catholics are Chaldeans[8] and originated from ancient Chaldean communities living in and indigenous to the north of Iraq/Upper Mesopotamia which was known as Chaldea from the 25th century BC until the 7th century AD.

All Joseph I's successors took the name of Joseph. The life of this patriarchate was difficult: at the beginning due to the vexations from the traditionalists, under which they were subject from a legal point of view, and later it struggled with financial difficulties due to the tax burden imposed by the Turkish authorities.

Chaldean Bishops Ordination in Michigan 2015 (Bishop Yaldo and Bishop Shalita)
Chaldean Monastery, Dyar Bakir, Turkey, Established 3rd Century AD

Nevertheless its influence expanded from the original towns of Amid and Mardin towards the area of Mosul and the Nineveh plains. The Josephite line unified in 1830 with the Chaldean Alqosh patriarchate that in the meantime entered in full communion with Rome.

The Alqosh Patriarchate in communion with Rome

The largest and oldest patriarchal see of the Chaldean Church of the East was based at the Rabban Hormizd monastery of Alqosh. It spread from Aqrah up to Seert and Nisibis, covering in the south the rich plain of Mosul. Already in the short period between 1610 and 1617 it entered in communion with Rome, and in 1771 the patriarch Eliya Denkha signed a Catholic confession of faith, but no formal union resulted. When Eliya Denkha died, his succession was disputed by two cousins: Eliyya Isho-Yab, who was recognized by Rome but soon broke the communion, and Yohannan Hormizd, who considered himself a Catholic.

In 1804, after Eliyya Isho-Yab's death, Yohannan Hormizd remained the only patriarch of Alqosh. There were thus two patriarchates in communion with Rome, the larger one in Alqosh, and in Amid that ruled by Augustine (Yousef V) Hindi. Rome did not want to choose between the two candidates and granted neither the title of Patriarch, even if from 1811 it was Augustine Hindi who ruled the Church. After Hindi's death, on the July 5, 1830, Yohannan Hormizd was formally confirmed Patriarch by Pope Pius VIII with the title of "Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans."[9]:528 The merger of the patriarchates of Alqosh and Amid was completed.

19th century: expansion and disaster

Faisal I of Iraq with all the Chaldean bishops and the Patriarch Yousef VI Emmanuel II Thomas, 1921
The following years of the Chaldean Church were marked by externally originating violence: in 1838 the monastery of Rabban Hormizd and the town of Alqosh was attacked by the Kurds of Soran and hundreds of Christian Chaldeans died.[10]:32 In 1843 the Kurds started to collect as much money as they could from Chaldean villages, killing those who refused: more than 10,000 Chaldean Christians of all denominations were killed and the icons of the Rabban Hormizd monastery defaced.[4]:298In 1846 the Chaldean Church was recognized by the Ottoman Empire as a 'millet', a distinctive 'religious community' in the Empire, thus obtaining its civic emancipation.[9] The most famous patriarch of the Chaldean Church in the 19th century was Joseph VI Audo who is remembered also for his clashes with Pope Pius IX mainly about his attempts to extend the Chaldean jurisdiction over the Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. This was a period of expansion for the Chaldean Catholic Church.
A Chaldean Catholic Church in Basra 2014
In the early 20th century massacres and continuation of the Chaldean Genocide died from cold in the winter or hunger. The disaster struck mainly the regions of the Chaldean Church of the East and the Chaldean dioceses in north Chaldea (Amid, Siirt and Gazarta) were ruined (the Chaldeans metropolitans Addai Scher of Siirt and Philip Abraham of Gazarta were killed in 1915).[10]:37

A further massacre occurred in 1933 at the hands of the Iraqi Army, in the form of the Simele massacre, which resulted in thousands of deaths.

21st century: eparchies around the world

A recent development in the Chaldean Catholic Church has been the creation in 2006 of the Eparchy of Oceania, with the title of 'St Thomas the Apostle of Sydney of the Chaldeans'.[11] This jurisdiction includes the Chaldean Catholic communities of Australia and New Zealand, and the first Bishop, named by Pope Benedict XVI on 21 October 2006, is Archbishop Djibrail (Jibrail) Kassab, until this date, Archbishop of Bassorah in Iraq.[12]

There has been a large immigration to the United States particularly to southeast Michigan.[13] Although the largest population resides in southeast Michigan, there are populations in parts of California and Arizona as well. Canada in recent years has shown growing communities in both eastern provinces, such as Ontario, and in western Canada, such as Saskatchewan.

In 2008, Mar Bawai Soro of the Church of the East and 1,000 Chaldean families were received into full communion with the Chaldean Catholic Church from the Chaldean Church of the East.[14]

On Friday, June 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI erected a new Chaldean Catholic eparchy in Toronto, Canada and named Archbishop Mar Yohannan Zora, who has worked alongside four priests with Catholics in Toronto (the largest community of Chaldeans) for nearly 20 years and who was previously an ad personam Archbishop (he will retain this rank as head of the eparchy) and the Archbishop of the Archdiocese (Archeparchy) of Ahwaz, Iran (since 1974). The new eparchy, or diocese, will be known as the Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mar Addai. There are 38,000 Chaldean Catholics in Canada. Archbishop Zora was born in Batnaia, Iraq, on March 15, 1939. He was ordained in 1962 and worked in Iraqi parishes before being transferred to Iran in 1969.[15]

The 2006 Australian census counted a total of 4,498 Chaldean Catholics in that country.[16]

Persecution in Iraq

Chaldeans of all denominations, and other religious minorities in Iraq, have endured extensive persecution since 2003, including the abductions and murders of their religious leaders, threats of violence or death if they do not abandon their homes and businesses, and the bombing or destruction of their churches and other places of worship. All this has occurred as anti-Christian emotions rise within Iraq after the American invasion and the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003 and the rise of militant Jihadists and religious militias.[17]

Father Ragheed Aziz Ganni, the pastor of the Chaldean Church of the Holy Spirit in Mosul who graduated from the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome in 2003 with a licentiate in ecumenical theology, was killed on 3 June 2007 in Mosul alongside the subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, after he celebrated mass.

Chaldean Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho and three companions were abducted on 29 February 2008, in Mosul, and murdered a few days later.

Structure

The Chaldean Catholic Church has the following dioceses:

Hierarchy

The current Patriarch is Louis Sako, elected in January 2013. In October 2007, his predecessor, Emmanuel III Delly became the first Chaldean Catholic patriarch to be elevated to the rank of Cardinal within the Catholic Church.[18]

The present Chaldean episcopate (January 2014) is as follows:

  • Mar Louis Raphaël I Sako, Patriarch of Babylon (since February 2013);
  • Mar Emmanuel III Delly, Patriarch emeritus of Babylon (December 2003 – 2012)
  • Emil Shimoun Nona, Archbishop of Mosul (since November 2009);
  • Bashar Warda, Archbishop of Arbil (since July 2010)
  • Ramzi Garmou, Archbishop of Teheran (since February 1999);
  • Thomas Meram, Archbishop of Urmia and Salmas (since 1984);
  • Yohannan Zora, Archbishop of Toronto (since June 2011);
  • Jibrail Kassab, Archbishop of Sydney (since October 2006);
  • Mar Jacques Ishaq, Titular Archbishop of Nisibis and curial Bishop of Babylon (since December 2005);
  • Habib Al-Naufali, Archbishop of Basra (since 2014)
  • Yousif Mirkis, Archbishop of Kirkuk and Suleimanya (since 2014)
  • Mar Mikha Pola Maqdassi, Bishop of Alqosh (since December 2001)
  • Mar Shlemon Warduni, curial Bishop of Babylon (since 2001).
  • Mar Saad Sirop, auxiliary Bishop of Babylon (since 2014)
  • Mar Antony Audo, Bishop of Aleppo (since January 1992);
  • Mar Michael Kassarji, Bishop of Lebanon (since 2001);
  • Mar Rabban Al-Qas, Bishop of ʿAmadiya and Zakho (since December 2001);
  • Mar Ibrahim Ibrahim, Bishop of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit (since April 1982 – 2014);
  • Mar Francis Kalabat, Bishop of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit (since June 2014)
  • Mar Sarhad Joseph Jammo, Bishop of Saint Peter the Apostle of San Diego (since July 2002);
  • Mar Bawai Soro, Titular Bishop of Foratiana and auxiliary bishop of Saint Peter the Apostle of San Diego (since 2014)

Several sees are vacant: Archeparchy of Diyarbakir, Archeparchy of Ahwaz, Eparchy of 'Aqra, Eparchy of Cairo.

Liturgy

The Chaldean Catholic Church uses the East Syrian Rite.

A slight reform of the liturgy was effective since 6 January 2007, and it aimed to unify the many different uses of each parish, to remove centuries-old additions that merely imitated the Roman Rite, and for pastoral reasons. The main elements of variations are: the Anaphora said aloud by the priest, the return to the ancient architecture of the churches, the restoration of the ancient use where the bread and wine are readied before a service begins, and the removal from the Creed of the Filioque clause.[19]

See also

Notes

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External links

  1. "The Chaldean Catholic Church". CNEWA. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  2. Ronald Roberson. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved December 2010.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) Information sourced from Annuario Pontificio 2010 edition
  3. CNEWA - Chaldean Catholic Church
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Frazee
  5. Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 2001: Where Was Abraham's Ur? by Allan R. Millard
  6. Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2010, 2007, pp. 237-77, 293–294
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://conference.osu.eu/globalization/publ/08-bohac.pdf
  8. Nisan, M. 2002. Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle for Self Expression. Jefferson: McFarland & Company.
  9. 9.0 9.1 O’Mahony, Anthony (2006). "Syriac Christianity in the modern Middle East". In Angold, Michael. Eastern Christianity. Cambridge History of Christianity. 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81113-2. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 David Wilmshurst, The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913, Peeters Publishers, 2000 ISBN 90-429-0876-9
  11. "Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Sydney (Chaldean)". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  12. "Archbishop Djibrail Kassab". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  13. "Eparchy of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Detroit (Chaldean)". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  14. "Chaldean Bishop Mar Bawai Soto explains his journey into communion with the Catholic Church". kaldaya.net. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  15. "CNS NEWS BRIEFS Jun-10-2011". Catholicnews.com. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  16. 2006 Religious Affiliation (Full Classification). "» 2006 Religious Affiliation (Full Classification) The Census Campaign Australia". Census-campaign.org.au. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  17. "Iraq's Persecution of Christians Continues to Spiral out of Control". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  18. AP[dead link]
  19. "TQ & A on the Reformed Chaldean Mass". Retrieved 2009-02-07.