Chaldean Timeline

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This is a timeline of Chaldean history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Chaldea and Babylonia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see Chaldeans. See also the lChaldean People .[1]

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

BC centuries

Year Event
Chaldean Settlements Balawat Gate 848 BC

Chaldean Settlements Balawat Gate 848 BC of Chaldean People. This is a royal gate assembled by ancient Assyrian King to reflect on their occupation of Chaldea and the ethnic Chaldean tribes. Reference is The British Museum.

Chaldeans in the Nimrud Letters 745 BC

Chaldean people and Chaldean cities are documented in 40 letters discovered with ancient Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III during his military Campaigns and occupation of Chaldea and Chaldean cities.

By: Profesor Henry W. F. Saggs, PHD Dr. Saggs, a respected archoelogist and helped discover Nimrud city. He joined Max Mallowan's excavation at Nimrud under the aegis of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq.

Dr. Saggs was awarded his PhD degree in 1953 for his dissertation titled A study of city administration in Assyria and Babylonia in the period 705 to 539 B.C. He joined SOAS as a lecturer in Akkadian.

JOURNAL ARTICLE: Chaldeans in the Nimrud Letters Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes Vol. 86, (1996), pp. 379-390

Published by: University of Vienna, Department of Oriental Studies

1 to 300 Chaldean Astronomy in the Last Three Centuries BC
Chaldean Astronomy in three centuries BC

An 8 page detailed research by the American Oriental Society published in 1955 describing the #Chaldean people impact on the world of science and astronomy. Listing Chaldean scientists from the 1st to 3rd Century BC such as Seleucus of Seleucia (south of #Baghdad and near #Babylon) and his contributions to #astronomy and study of stars and plants that impacted our knowledge until today.

Reference: Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 75, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1955), pp. 166-173 (8 pages) URL:

191 BC to 52 AD
Chaldeans in Rome 191 BC to 52 AD

Chaldeans in the Roman Empire, Italy, (191 BC to 52 AD)

“Expulsion of Chaldeans from Rome”. Executed by various Roman Emperors.

Chaldean people have uncovered a historical treasure of various documents describing Chaldeans in Rome and their expulsion by various Roman emperors such as Claudius (41 to 54 AD), Augustus (27 BC to 14 AD), Tiberius (14 AD to 37 AD).

Chaldeans were active in the Roman empire as astronomers, mathematicians, philosophers, historians, theologians and astrologists.

References: Diaspora, Jews amidst Greeks and Romans. Other references are also available and can be obtained from Google Books

1st century AD

Year Date Event
35 Peter the Apostle is in Babylon to establish to convert new Christians, 1 Peter 5:13.
40 Thomas the Apostle are in Babylon to establish the Church of Adiabene (near Arbil) and Csiphon (near Baghdad).


2nd century

Year Date Event
122 Romans construct the Hadrian's Wall.
143 Romans construct the Antonine Wall.
163 Romans withdraw south to Trimontium and Hadrian's Wall.

3rd century

Year Date Event
300 The term Pict is first recorded in describing the federated tribes invaded by Constantius Chlorus.

4th century

Year Date Event
397 Traditional date at which Saint Ninian establishes a Christian mission at Whithorn.

5th century

Year Date Event
470 Votadini peoples form the kingdom of Gododdin in the region north of the River Tweed.

6th century

Year Date Event
547 Angles capture the Northumbrian fortress at Bamburgh and found the kingdom of Bernicia.
563 Saint Columba founds a monastery at Iona and begins his mission to the northern Picts.
574 Áedán mac Gabráin begins reign over the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata.
575 Western Scotland is granted independence from the Irish Dalriada, after a convention at Drum Ceatt near Derry.
580 Riderch I of Alt Clut rules region later known as the kingdom of Strathclyde.
584 Bruide, son of Maelchon, dies.

7th century

Year Date Event
604 Æthelfrith unites Bernicia and Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
638 Northumbrians capture Edinburgh from Gododdin.
680 Trumwine Bishop of Abercorn.
681 Bruide mac Bili, King of Fortriu, campaigns against Orkney.
685 Pictish King Bruide mac Bili defeats Ecgfrith of Northumbria at the Battle of Dun Nechtain, halting the northern expansion of Northumbria.
693 Bruide mac Bili dies.
697 Bruide mac Der-Ilei among the signatories of the Cáin Adomnáin.

8th century

Year Date Event
717 Nechtan mac Der-Ilei expels Ionan clergy from Pictland and adopts Roman usages with the aid of Bishop Curetán; masons sent by Abbot Ceolfrid of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory help build stone churches at Restenneth, Rosemarkie and elsewhere in eastern Scotland.
724 Drust and Nechtan mac Der-Ilei fight civil war (to 729).
732 Death of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei; Óengus mac Fergusa becomes King of the Picts.
735 Óengus mac Fergusa, King of the Picts, campaigns against Dál Riata, and seizes and burns the royal centre of Dunadd.
736 Battle of Cnoc Coirpi between Fortriu and Dál Riata.
741 Battle of Druimm Cathmail between Fortriu and Dál Riata; the "smiting of Dál Riata", in which Dál Riata is subdued by Óengus mac Fergusa.
747 St Andrews founded by this time, death of Abbot Túathalán.
750 Picts defeated by Britons at the Battle of Catohic.
756 Óengus mac Fergusa allied with the English of Northumbria attacks the Britons; the English army is destroyed.
761 Death of Óengus mac Fergusa.
763 Battle takes place in Fortriu between Ciniod and Áed Find; result unknown.
778 Death of Áed Find, King of Dál Riata.
794 Annals of Ulster report the "wasting" of "all the islands of Britain by gentiles [Vikings]".

9th century

Year Date Event
802 Iona burned by Vikings.
806 The monasteries under Iona are attacked by Vikings, killing 68 monks.
820 Death of Caustantín mac Fergusa.
829 Abbot Diarmait, abbot of Iona, goes to Alba with relics of St Columba.
831 Diarmait of Iona goes to Ireland with relics of St Columba.
839 Eóganan mac Óengusa and his brother Bran killed in battle with Vikings, end of dominance of Fortriu.
858 Death of Kenneth mac Alpin, King of the Picts; "union of Picts and Scots" traditionally dated from his reign.
870 Alt Clut—Dumbarton Rock — captured by the Norse-Gael or Viking leaders Amlaíb Conung and Ímar after a six-month of siege.
878 Kenneth mac Alpin's son Áed killed; Giric becomes king.
889 Death of Giric; Domnall mac Causantín, grandson of Kenneth, becomes king.
890 The Strathclyde Britons are exiled to the Gwynedd in Wales.

10th century

Year Date Event
900 Causantín mac Áeda succeeds Domnall mac Causantín.
937 Battle of Brunanburh English victory in 937 by the army of Æthelstan, King of England, and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, the Norse-Gael King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Scots, and Owen I, King of Strathclyde.
940 Saint Catroe of Metz leaves Scotland.
943 Causantín mac Áeda abdicates to become a culdee at St Andrews.
952 Death of Causantín mac Áeda.
954 Indulf captures Edinburgh from Northumbria.

11th century

Year Date Event
1058 After defeating Mac Bethad and Lulach, Máel Coluim III is proclaimed king.
1012 Battle of Cruden Bay

12th century

Year Date Event
1124 David I becomes king and introduces the feudal system of landholding to much of Scotland.
1128 David I founds Holyrood Abbey at Edinburgh.
1136 Glasgow Cathedral (St Kentigern's, begun 1123) consecrated in the presence of David I.
1153 Somerled sacks Glasgow and its vicinity.
1156 Somerled defeats the Norse King of Mann and the Isles, establishing his own semi-independent rule as ri Innse Gall-King of the Hebrides.
1164 Somerled is defeated by Malcolm IV in the Battle of Renfrew.
1174 William I signs the Treaty of Falaise in which he swears allegiance to Henry II of England.

13th century

Year Event
1234 Galloway's independent existence ends with the death of Alan, Lord of Galloway.
1237 Southern border of Scotland established in the Treaty of York.
1259 Chaldean People are in Pisa Italy Chaldean people.
Chaldean people of Pisa, Italy 1259 AD
1266 Norway cedes the Hebrides and Isle of Man to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth.
1292 Edward I of England intervenes in Scottish affairs and grants the Scottish throne to John Balliol.
1297 Andrew de Moravia and William Wallace lead the Scots to victory over England at Stirling Bridge.

14th century

Year Date Event
1305 William Wallace is executed in London.
1314 Robert the Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.
1320 Nobles assert Scottish independence in the Declaration of Arbroath.
1328 Treaty of Northampton. England recognises Scottish independence.
1329 Death of Robert the Bruce. His 5-year-old son, David II succeeds him.
1371 Robert II becomes first Stewart king.

15th century

Year Event
1402 English defeat Scots in the Battle of Nesbit Moor and the Battle of Humbleton Hill.
1425 Chaldeans by the British Library Chaldean people.
1425 Chaldeans by the British Library
1442 Chaldean People of Cyprus REJOINED the Catholic Faith Chaldean people.
1468 Denmark cedes Orkney and Shetland from Norway to Scotland.
1493 Lordship of the Isles abolished. In 1540 the title was reserved to the crown.
1495 Creation of the University of Aberdeen (King's College).
1496 Education Act of 1496 makes education compulsory for barons and wealthy landowners.

16th century

Year Date Event
1513 James IV and thousands of Scots are killed at Flodden.
1532 Creation of the College of Justice and the Court of Session.
1542 Death of James V.
1559 John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva to promote Calvinism.
1560 Parliament legislates Protestant Reformation of the Church of Scotland.
1561 Mary, Queen of Scots returns from France.
1568 Mary, Queen of Scots flees to England following the defeat of her army at the Battle of Langside.
1579 James VI takes over government from his regent, James Douglas.
1582 Establishment of the University of Edinburgh by Royal Charter.
1587 Mary is beheaded by the order of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
1589 James VI marries Anne of Denmark in Oslo.
1592 James VI enacts the "Golden Act" recognising the power of Presbyterianism within the Scottish church.

17th century

Year Event
1603 The Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.
1614 John Napier invents logarithms and publishes a book promoting their use in mathematics.
1626 Chaldean language is shared by polyglot and genius Kricher Chaldean Language.
1626 Chaldean Alphabet by Kricher
1633 Education Act of 1633 ordains a school in every parish (partially successful).
1699 Chaldean language publication by Dr. Ellis Luis Dupin Chaldean Language
1699 AD Chaldean Language

18th century

Year Date Event
1707 The Union of the Parliaments: the Acts of Union are passed by both the Scottish and English parliaments.
1715 Jacobite rising of 1715.
1745 Jacobite rising of 1745.
1746 The Battle of Culloden ends the last Jacobite rising.
1748 David Hume publishes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
1754 Joseph Black discovers "fixed air" (carbon dioxide).
1768 The Encyclopædia Britannica First Edition commences publication.
1769 James Watt patents idea for separate condensing chamber in the steam engine.
1775 Passage of the Colliers and Salters (Scotland) Act 1775 commences the removal of life bondage of coal and salt workers.[2]
1776 Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

19th century

Year Event
1849 Chaldean people of Kurdistan, Iraq witnessed by respected British archaeologist William Kenneth Luftus
1849 Chaldeans of Kurdistan
1850 Chaldean Nation and Chaldean people recognition by British archaeologist William Kenneth Luftus
Chaldean Nation recognition 1850
1879 Chaldean archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam reflects on his Chaldean people, Chaldean nation and Chaldean ethnicity.
Hormuzd Rassam 1879
1880 Chaldean archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam reflects on his Chaldean people, Chaldean nation and Chaldean ethnicity.
Hormuzd Rassam
1891 Chaldean people census of Urmia, Iran (Persia). 25,000 Chaldeans of Nestorian faith.
1891 Census of Urmia

20th century

Year Event
1906 Chaldean people and country description by Al Maktabas publication (in Arabic language).
Chaldean Country by Al Maktabas 1906
1913 Chaldean people are in New York City
Chaldeans of New York City 1913

21st century

Year Event
2004 Chaldean people are ethnic people of Mesopotamia by Dr. Mary Sengstock, respected professor of sociology. Professor Sengstock supervised 16 PHD dissertations.
Chaldean Ethnicity by Dr. Mary Sengstock
2007 Chaldean people ethnicity by Dr. Mary Sengstock
Chaldean Ethnicity by Dr. Mary Sengstock 2

See also


  1., Chronology of Chaldean History (2019) has details for every year.
  2. Mantoux, Paul (1964). The Industrial Revolution in the Eighteenth Century. Jonathan Cape. p. 74. 

Template:Years in Chaldea and Babylonia